The initial investigation started on 30 November and the initial definitive measures were taken on 28 February , ranging from The expiry review will determine whether the expiry of the measures would be likely to lead to a continuation or recurrence of injury to the EU industry. Exporting producers of the product under review from China and Russia, including those that did not cooperate …. On 28 February , the Ministry of Commerce of P. The duration for confirming dumping was from 1 January to 31 December and for confirming injury to the domestic industry was from 1 January to 31 December In accordance with the Decision on the provisional anti-dumping duties, Chinese importers of toluidine from the EU will be required to pay deposits with Chinese Customs as of 1 March , ….
On 1 March , the European Commission issued the notice of the impending expiry of anti-dumping measures on citric acid from China. The anti-dumping measures will expire on 4 December unless a review is initiated. Later on 22 February , the European Commission further initiated an anti-subsidy proceeding concerning OCS upon the complaint lodged by Eurofer. In the notice of initiation of the anti-dumping proceeding, the European Commission indicated its intention to use either Canada or South Africa as an appropriate analogue country for the purpose of establishing normal value.
After examination ….
The European Commission announced the initiation of an anti-dumping proceeding Case AD and an anti-subsidy proceeding Case AS concerning imports of solar panels from China respectively on 6 September and on 8 November following a complaint lodged by the EU ProSun. The United States of America has been provisionally chosen by the European Commission as a market economy third country for the purpose of determination of normal value in the anti-dumping proceeding.
The registration request was made by the EU ProSun so that measures may subsequently be …. In accordance with the definitive anti-dumping measure, the anti-dumping duties rate ranges from 6. During the investigation, the European Commission sampled three exporting producers and selected Turkey as the analogue country for determining the normal value. The exporting producer has to submit information to the European Commission within 15 days of 28 February to be a sampling party in this case.
The latest date for entry into force of provisional measures is 28 November …. The initial investigation started on 20 October and definitive measures were taken on 30 December Ltd and Hubei Xinshiji Foods Co. Ltd v Council of the European Union supported by the European Commission, the General Court of the EU annulled the original Regulation of the definitive measure in so far as it concerns …. The exporting producer has to submit information to the European Commission within 15 days of 16 February to be a sampling party in this case.
The latest date for entry into force of provisional measures is 16 November …. On 5 February , the Ministry of Commerce of P.
The duty rates will range from The anti-dumping duties shall be imposed by means of ad valorem on the basis of dutiable value authorised by the Customs …. Better enforcement of judgements abroad: bye bye exequatur! No change for arbitration 1. The recasting of this Regulation was desirable and the improvements are significant.
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On 6 December 6 , the EU Council approved the recast. De decennialange zoektocht naar een Europees contractenrecht heeft tot een tastbaar initiatief geleid. De Europese Commissie heeft een verordening betreffende een gemeenschappelijk Europees kooprecht voorgesteld, dat is opgezet voor grensoverschrijdende transacties in zowel B2B als B2C context. Het is een optioneel instrument dat door partijen kan, maar niet moet worden gekozen. Gelet op het …. Groupe de recherche en droit des obligations, K.
WERY , Les effets de l'interruption et de la suspension de la prescription, La prescription extinctive. Vander Mersch et sous la direction de M. Suggested readings have been added to the listings for each jurisdiction based on their value to research in comparative law, and many citations and links to cited cases and works have been added. More than the original article it replaces, this version concentrates on the law and practice in those sectors that distinguish particular micro-states as legal and economic entities: bank secrecy, flexibility in trust management, tax sparing, asset protection, shipping, and political and juridical stability.
No attempt has been made to make the country sections entirely parallel. The first priority has been to identify online and print sources of primary law. Beyond that, secondary sources and commentary are provided when they are known to the author and when it is believed a bibliography would be difficult to develop by simple query on one of the OPACs listed below.
Nordic, NATO and similar multilateral documents and links are generally listed only once, on the assumption that a reader interested in, say, the Faroe Islands will read through the Greenland and Iceland sections as well. All links were visited during the December Some links, especially links to internal pages and those intended for student downloads, may have limited life spans.
Country or Area. Population [ii]. Cyprus Republic [iii]. Northern Cyprus [v]. Faroe Islands.
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San Marino. Vatican State [vi]. Isle of Man. The micro-states and juridical-autonomous small jurisdictions of Europe owe their existence to historical anomalies; vested interests seem to have assured their survival. Of the 13 jurisdictions covered, only nine possess internationally recognized sovereignty. At least in the case of North Cyprus, lack of such recognition may impede foreign courts from giving force to its administrative and juridical acts and recognition to the status of inhabitants abroad except insofar as a "subordinate level of government theory" [vii] or a pragmatic or sympathetic legal approach intervenes.
For this reason, conflict of laws and foreign relations law need to be reviewed. In the United States, the case law on alienage jurisdiction has sometimes yielded curious results with respect to the bringing of cases by or against nationals of non-sovereign political entities in federal court; thus: Matimak Trading Co.
Khalily , F3d 76 2d Cir , cert. The access to U. Inhabitants of breakaway provinces, including Transnistria and perhaps Kosovo, may face similar difficulties to the degree that their nationality laws recognize as citizens persons who are excluded as such under the laws of the recognized state. Such territories also raise interesting questions of treaty law and status with respect to international organizations, and the researcher may wish to look at relevant data sources.
Many micro-states have powerful advocates with access to the government and legislature of a nearby, protecting or sovereign power; the dynamics of tax-law legislation [viii] and the international-law principle of sovereign equality [ix] are important factors behind their viability.
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The economically-active jurisdictions covered depend on flight capital, entity hosting, trusts, shipping and tax advantages or some combination of these for their economic survival The issues have been extensively debated in international organizations and discussed in the legal literature. Eight of the sovereign states reviewed here i. In addition, because they are associated in varying degrees to the European Union, EU law may need to be reviewed in relation to issues concerning the non-sovereign European UK territories, plus at least Malta and Cyprus.
Cyprus, Malta and Gibraltar and other UK dependencies are within of the British Commonwealth [x] , which can have particular relevance to the application of UK tax and immigration law. The legal system of Andorra was discussed in a article in the American Journal of Legal History; it has a number of arrangements with the European Union.
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Liechtenstein and Iceland are member states of the European Economic Area. With respect to Liechtenstein , Monaco , San Marino and the Vatican , relationships with the respective "protecting" powers France, Spain, Switzerland and Italy , and with the European Union, are governed by treaties which may need to be examined; some of these treaties are cited below. Iceland is a member of the Nordic Council. See also the European Commission page on the use of the euro outside the euro area.
The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus has a functioning body of laws and legal system, but as it is recognized de jure only by Turkey; its inhabitants may be treated by other countries as Cypriots, Turks or stateless, depending upon facts and circumstances in each case. Turkish law may apply for certain transactions: the shipping, banking and financial, postal and communications systems are integrated with those of Turkey.
Where available and relevant, the name and URL or street address is provided of one or more major national law library ies. In addition, the laws of many but not all the jurisdictions are available for consultation at major repositories of foreign law, including:. Other recommended sources of official gazettes are the.
click Especially for historical legal materials, researchers may also wish to consult:. Current issues are more likely to be found in the UK at. For non-UK European materials:. Present and former UK dependencies. The Council of Europe requires its member states to provide translations and summaries of various laws in English or French translation , and researchers may contact the relevant CoE office for details and, in some cases, copies of the resulting work product.
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