These include scintillation counters designed for freight terminals, border security, ports, weigh bridge applications, scrap metal yards and contamination monitoring of nuclear waste. There are variants of scintillation counters mounted on pick-up trucks and helicopters for rapid response in case of a security situation due to dirty bombs or radioactive waste.
In the United Kingdom , the Health and Safety Executive , or HSE, has issued a user guidance note on selecting the correct radiation measurement instrument for the application concerned.
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Radioactive contamination monitors, for area or personal surveys require a large detection area to ensure efficient and rapid coverage of monitored surfaces. For this a thin scintillator with a large area window and an integrated photomultiplier tube is ideally suited.
They find wide application in the field of radioactive contamination monitoring of personnel and the environment. Detectors are designed to have one or two scintillation materials, depending on the application. A scintillator such as zinc sulphide is used for alpha particle detection, whilst plastic scintillators are used for beta detection.
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The resultant scintillation energies can be discriminated so that alpha and beta counts can be measured separately with the same detector,  This technique is used in both hand-held and fixed monitoring equipment, and such instruments are relatively inexpensive compared with the gas proportional detector. Scintillation materials are used for ambient gamma dose measurement, though a different construction is used to detect contamination, as no thin window is required. Scintillators often convert a single photon of high energy radiation into high number of lower-energy photons, where the number of photons per megaelectronvolt of input energy is fairly constant.
By measuring the intensity of the flash the number of the photons produced by the x-ray or gamma photon it is therefore possible to discern the original photon's energy. The spectrometer consists of a suitable scintillator crystal, a photomultiplier tube, and a circuit for measuring the height of the pulses produced by the photomultiplier.
The pulses are counted and sorted by their height, producing a x-y plot of scintillator flash brightness vs number of the flashes, which approximates the energy spectrum of the incident radiation, with some additional artifacts. A monochromatic gamma radiation produces a photopeak at its energy. The detector also shows response at the lower energies, caused by Compton scattering , two smaller escape peaks at energies 0. Higher energies can be measured when two or more photons strike the detector almost simultaneously pile-up , within the time resolution of the data acquisition chain , appearing as sum peaks with energies up to the value of two or more photopeaks added .
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Counting efficiency. Main article: Gamma spectroscopy. Archived from the original on Radiation Detection and Measurement, third edition Radiation protection. Background radiation Dosimetry Health physics Ionizing radiation Internal dosimetry Radioactive contamination Radioactive sources Radiobiology. Airborne radioactive particulate monitoring Dosimeter Geiger counter Ion chamber Scintillation counter Proportional counter Radiation monitoring Semiconductor detector Survey meter Whole-body counting.
Lead shielding Glovebox Potassium iodide Radon mitigation Respirators.
Acute radiation syndrome Radiation-induced cancer. See also: the categories Medical physics , Radiation effects , Radioactivity , Radiobiology , and Radiation protection. Geophone Hydrophone Microphone Seismometer. Air—fuel ratio meter Blind spot monitor Crankshaft position sensor Curb feeler Defect detector Engine coolant temperature sensor Hall effect sensor MAP sensor Mass flow sensor Omniview technology Oxygen sensor Parking sensors Radar gun Speed sensor Speedometer Throttle position sensor Tire-pressure monitoring system Torque sensor Transmission fluid temperature sensor Turbine speed sensor Variable reluctance sensor Vehicle speed sensor Water sensor Wheel speed sensor.
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Breathalyzer Carbon dioxide sensor Carbon monoxide detector Catalytic bead sensor Chemical field-effect transistor Electrochemical gas sensor Electrolyte—insulator—semiconductor sensor Electronic nose Fluorescent chloride sensors Holographic sensor Hydrocarbon dew point analyzer Hydrogen sensor Hydrogen sulfide sensor Infrared point sensor Ion selective electrode ISFET Microwave chemistry sensor Nitrogen oxide sensor Nondispersive infrared sensor Olfactometer Optode Oxygen sensor Pellistor pH glass electrode Potentiometric sensor Redox electrode Smoke detector Zinc oxide nanorod sensor.
Accelerometer Angular rate sensor Auxanometer Capacitive displacement sensor Capacitive sensing Gravimeter Inclinometer Integrated circuit piezoelectric sensor Laser rangefinder Laser surface velocimeter Lidar Linear encoder Linear variable differential transformer Liquid capacitive inclinometers Odometer Photoelectric sensor Piezoelectric accelerometer Position sensor Rotary encoder Rotary variable differential transformer Selsyn Sudden Motion Sensor Tachometer Tilt sensor Ultrasonic thickness gauge Variable reluctance sensor Velocity receiver.
Active pixel sensor Angle—sensitive pixel Back-illuminated sensor Charge-coupled device Contact image sensor Electro-optical sensor Flame detector Image sensor Image sensor format Infrared Kinetic inductance detector LED as light sensor Light-addressable potentiometric sensor Nichols radiometer Optical fiber Photodetector Photodiode Photoelectric sensor Photoionization detector Photomultiplier Photoresistor Photoswitch Phototransistor Phototube Position sensitive device Scintillometer Shack—Hartmann wavefront sensor Single-photon avalanche diode Superconducting nanowire single-photon detector Transition edge sensor Tristimulus colorimeter Visible-light photon counter Wavefront sensor.
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